Approximately 1500 of 1900 species spread over the flora in Cyprus are in Northern Cyprus. Sunny days lasting for more than 300 days of the year and unique features of the Mediterranean climate have been a major factor on the formation of such a great natural wealth. Among the plants spread throughout Northern Cyprus, there are 19 endemic plant species and 32 kinds of wild orchids which are found nowhere else in the world and grow only in Northern Cyprus. Only one type of orchid (orchid kotschyi) has been identified as endemic in Northern Cyprus. The best known endemic among endemics in Cyprus is Tulipa Cypria, also known as Cyprus Medoş Tulip, for which a festival is held every year in March in Tepebaşı and Avtepe villages. All the orchid species, ancient trees, endemic and rare species, which are among the most important values of flora and fauna, are under protection.
The old sycamore in front of St. Nicholas Cathedral (Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque) has witnessed many historical and social events throughout its life. The tree which is the oldest live witness of Lusignan, Venetian, Genoese, Ottoman, British periods, and recent history is said to have been planted in 1298 when the construction of the cathedral was started. "Ficus Sycomorus''(sycamore), which is about 710 years old and is protected as a memorial tree, is known as the oldest living tree in Cyprus.